If we are to give credit where credit is due some of the great engineering designers of the 21st century will likely include not only humans, but whales, termites, birds, butterflies, fish, bees, reptiles, and slime mold.
Imagine trying to estimate the monetary damage of one additional ton of carbon dioxide (CO2) emitted into the atmosphere in the year 2040, or 2100. It would require global modeling approaches that estimate potential effects on health, agriculture, forestry, sea level rise, extreme weather, water resources, energy consumption, and human migration. As impossible as that seems, the modeling of the Social Cost of Carbon (SCC) began in 2007.
Pollinators include over 4,000 species of bees, as well as birds, butterflies, bats, and other insects. While managing vast land parcels that thread the nation, electric utilities are in a unique position to enhance pollinator habitats. To ensure an adequate food supply for pollinators, "recent science has shown that the density of tall shrubs should be around 35–40% of a right-of-way's land area, and the shrubs should be intermingled with flowering species that bloom in sequence through the growing season," said Lewis Payne, who manages vegetation along New York Power Authority's 1,400 miles of transmission corridor.